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Super-preachers like Bernardino of Siena and John of Capestrano shaped opinion on a wide range of issues: the ethics of business, marriage and gender relations, attitudes towards minorities, the poor and social responsibility, as well as the role of kings and other rulers in society.

Preaching events were the mass media of the day, and in their wake could follow pogrom, lay revival, crusade, peace movement, or reconciliation within a faction-riven city. The power of these events was great and not merely confined to the Christian community.

This volume introduces for the first time a comparative dimension which looks at the theme of charisma and religious authority in the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim preaching traditions. If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here:. Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Preaching, Questa potrebbesi eziandio trapiantare, avendola seminata presto in cassette, come dissi praticarsi per aver poponi primaticci.

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One very productive variety, especially for marketing when the fruit is still small, is the zucca quarantina , which spreads very little, so it could be said it needs no pruning. It could be transplanted, being sown early in trays to yield fruit early in the season. A small book on economic botany published in Siena indicates that the mature fruits of the zucca could be kept and eaten all winter Tassi, The flowers and immature fruits of the zucche , called zucchettine or zucchini , were also eaten. It bears fruit of medium size: round, yellow, and with flesh of fair flavour.

Another was Zucca rognosa lunga , which was long, yellow and had protuberances, apparently a C. Marcellino and Giuseppe Roda , Turin described nine cultivars of Cucurbita. Three C. The French word courgerons had been used for the summer pumpkins, and the Italian zuccottini and zucchettine are its equivalents. A volume published by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture , Rome mentions a Zucca di Napoli o di quaranta giorni.

Angelo Nicolosi Gallo , writing on horticulture in Sicily, described two Cucurbita pepo grown for the use of the young fruits. The other was Zucca o cucuzza di 40 giorni , stated as being the earliest of all and having a large peduncle. Nearly all C. The botanist Giovanni Francesco Re of Turin, in La flora segusina The plants of the Susa Valley , wrote that the varieties of zucche were numerous, the fruits being elongate or round.

He stated that the Piedmontese diminutive vernacular coussot was used for the variety verde quarantina. Alessandra Canevari , in the second edition of Coltivazione della piante alimentare Milan , stated that there were numerous varieties of zucca. One, zucca quarantina , was singled out as quite productive and useful when the fruits were small. The seed catalogue of Fratelli Ingegnoli of Milan lists several zucchette. The zucchetta collo torto, precoce a polpa piena giallo aranciata was, evidently, a cultivar of the Crookneck Group Fig.

The accompanying illustration indeed shows a bushy plant with five large fruits around it. However, the fruits are short, tapered cylindrical, striped squash, resembling those of some English vegetable marrow cultivars. These fruits, though, were obviously not borne by the plant but instead merely placed around it, as no bush C.

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Zucchetta nana di Milano was a recent introduction, being absent from the catalogue of the company. Rodolfo Farneti , in Frutti freschi e secchi ortaggi Milan , described three cultivars of Cucurbita of which the fruits were eaten immature. These were the long, striped cucuzzella , the similar but plain light-coloured zucca bianca , and the zucca dalla midolla marrow , as described and illustrated by Vilmorin He did not mention any zucca verde quarantina or nana di Milano. Domenico Tamaro , in the first edition of Orticoltura Milan , described 18 cultivars of Cucurbita pepo , C.

Six of the 18 cultivars were described as having short stems and bearing fruits that were eaten in erba , very young. Tamaro described Zucca quarantina vera nana as follows: Pianta accestita a tralcio corto: foglie piccole, sinuate, dentate, cupe. Bushy, short-stemmed plant; small dark leaves, sinuate, dentate.

Fruit long, slender, cylindrical, dark green, dotted with white; orangeish at maturity, lightly reticulated. A very early variety and very productive. Excellent for eating when young Tamaro, The word quarantina means approx. The quarantina vera nana was early maturing, in part because it was harvested when the fruits were young, and was vera nana , a true dwarf, a short-stemmed, bushy plant. Aloi , in his Trattato di agraria redatto , mentioned two cultivars of summer squash.

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One was the zucca italiana , the fruits of which were eaten when very young and called zucchettine , and the other was the zucchetta nana di Milano. Five categories of historical records of Cucurbita from Renaissance times have been enumerated Paris, b. These are accounts by explorers, illustrations in botanical works, descriptions by botanists, artistic paintings and gardening books.

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Another category of historical records, which has not been thoroughly searched until now, is cookbooks. Pumpkins and squash are widely consumed as cooked vegetables, but the numerous cultigens of C. The climate of Italy is highly favourable for pumpkin and squash production. As old landraces of pumpkins and cocozelles have been found in Italy Perrino et al. Although the old Italian cookery texts offer an improved insight into the historical development, dissemination and use of Cucurbita in Italy, it is often difficult to make a clear assessment of the information contained therein.

There was a profusion of regional dialects spoken throughout Italy well into the 20th century. Most Italians, even of the educated and upper classes, spoke regional dialects descended from the Latin vernacular, a result of centuries of social, political and geographical fragmentation. Standard Italian traces its roots to the 14th century, derived from the blend of Tuscan dialects used by Dante and other Renaissance poets. Only after the Second World War, with the advent of public education and the spread of radio and television, did Standard Italian become understood and used throughout Italy Migliorini, , Moreover, the Italians have long had a flair for the use of suffixes as descriptors.

Given that dialects prevailed in the country until the Second World War, it is not surprising that the cookbook authors were not consistent in their terminologies, including the use of diminutives. The Grande Dizionario della Lingua Italiana Battaglia, lists the first mention of the word zucchino masc. It dates zucchina fem. The masculine and feminine plurals are zucchini and zucchine , respectively. The earliest written documents we have found that contain the diminutive word zucchini or zucchine are a Tuscan botanical dictionary dated and Tuscan cookbooks dating to the midth century.

The oldest of the Tuscan cookbooks are the edition of Il cuciniere italiano Vignozzi, , La cuciniera moderna Brizzi, and Il cuciniere moderno Puppo, Table 1.

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Also mentioning zucchini were the Tuscan cookbooks by Oliva published in Milan, but first published in Livorno and Moro A book on economic botany Tassi, and a research paper Cazzuola, , both published in Tuscany, also refer to zucchini. The use by Artusi of the word zucchini rather than zucchette is indicative of his preference for the Tuscan dialect that was becoming the lingua franca of Italy.

A native of Emiglia-Romagna, he wrote his cookbook in his adopted Standard Italian and included a glossary of Italian terms for his readers across the country. Indeed, the Tuscan word zucchini superseded the various other Italian words for squash and gourds by about However, there is considerable doubt concerning the actual horticultural identity of the zucchini mentioned in these 19th-century cookbooks. Indeed, recipes by Oliva and Nelli call for the frying of the young fruit with its attached flower. Many cocozelle cultivars have persistent flowers but zucchini cultivars do not Fig.

Cocozelles had been consumed, together with their attached flowers, for centuries Paris and Janick, The Tuscan word zucchini , its later French equivalent courgette and perhaps its predecessor, the Neapolitan cocozelle , were originally generalists from which specific elite types became heralded: zucchini and courgette with uniformly cylindrical, usually dark green fruits, and cocozelle with very long bulbous cylindrical fruits, broadly dark-striped or of a lighter green.

Use of these diminutives tacitly indicated a preference for long fruits Table 1. Frugoli specified long, tender cocuzzette , Cavalcanti long cocozzelle , Gallo indicated the preference for the cuccuzzedda , and Artusi and Ratto specified the long zucchini.

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Similarly, the word zucchette , employed by Corrado , , Odescalchi , Chapusot , Belloni , and Bossi and Salvi usually indicated elongate squash. The word quarantina , the use of the fruit when it is young, the compact plant, its productivity and the association with Milan connect the description by Cantoni of Zucca quarantina with the one by Tamaro of Zucca quarantina vera nana.

However, the word quarantina day was used to indicate early maturity in other crop plants, and its variants could have been used for summer squash other than zucchini. For example, a publication by the Ministry of Agriculture mentioned Di Napoli o di quaranta giorni Naples or day squash, suggesting a cocozelle Fig. Cantoni, though, distinguished the verde e lunga cocozelle and the zucca bianca tonda pumpkin from the zucca verde quarantina. Cantoni devoted a lengthy description to the zucca verde quarantina , stating that it was highly productive, for marketing when the fruit was still small, the plant spreading very little and needing no pruning.

The description by Tamaro of the quarantina vera nana is similar but more detailed, clearly indicating a zucchini squash; he stated that the plant was short-stemmed and compact, yielding long, slender, cylindrical, dark green fruits Fig. Apparently, Cantoni and Tamaro were describing the same cultivar, suggesting that a zucchini has existed since at least as early as The verde quarantina was also known to the Piedmontese Francesco Re A zucca quarantina was the only one treated by Alessandra Canevari of Milan, but Farneti did not mention it, his treatment of Cucurbita pepo being briefer than of C.

The accompanying image, copied by Aloi for zucchetta nana di Milano , is not a true representation. Even to the present, commercial seed outlets use attractive photographs to escort their descriptions of cultivars, but often the photographs are in fact takes of other cultivars. The combined Italian culinary and horticultural records reveal that zucchini , both the word and the vegetable, trace their origins to midth-century northern Italy.

However, the word and the vegetable came into common use independently of each other.

As Standard Italian gradually took hold throughout the country during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the various dialect terms were replaced by zucchini. The association of the word zucchini with a particular fruit-shape group of squash arose in California, USA during the early 20th century. The shorter, less intensely coloured vegetable marrows Fig. Toward the end of the 20th century, large commercial outlets began offering new cultivars bearing round fruits that were to be consumed when young.

This led to a general usage of the word zucchini for all young fruits of Cucurbita pepo , essentially as a synonym for the long-established term summer squash and beyond, to young fruits of other cucurbit species. All of the traditional true zucchini cultivars have intense green external coloration of the young fruits Figs 2, 6 and 7J, K which turns black-green at full maturity Fig. This developmental coloration of the fruits is conferred by the unique interaction of complementary dominant alleles, L-1 and L-2 Paris and Nerson, , at two multiple-allelic loci Paris, Relatively few accessions of other groups possess both of these alleles, the l-1 locus having five alleles and the l-2 locus four alleles identified so far.

It is evident, though, that the zucchini squash was selected from an ancestor that carried both alleles, L-1 and L This indicates that the cocozelles and zucchinis are derived from different ancestors. DNA sequence polymorphisms have yet to reveal a possible candidate forebear of the zucchini Katzir et al. Indeed, these investigations show that the cocozelles are not more closely related to the zucchinis than are the pumpkins or the vegetable marrows. The two cultivar-groups, Cocozelle and Zucchini, evolved separately, the former in Naples and probably other parts of southern and central Italy long prior to , and the latter in northern Italy, near Milan, during the 19th century.

No native North American landraces of Cucurbita pepo subsp. Instead, these landraces bear fruits that are generally round, ranging from oblate to short oblong, probably differing little from those grown in pre-Columbian times Whitaker and Knight, Generally, the landraces are multipurpose, cultivated for the consumption of the young fruits, the mature fruit flesh and the seeds.